Parts of speech
Sentences are made up of different types of words, the basics of which are:
Nouns: A person, place, or thing.
These are then split up into:
Proper nouns: Actual names, both for teams and individuals. These are the words which get capital letters.
- Collective Nouns: Words that name more than one thing or person - Players, Team, and team names like Wallabies, or Manchester United, are collective nouns.
- Pronouns: Words which stand in for proper and collective nouns - he, she, they, we, it.
- Abstract nouns: Words which name non-physical things - e.g. victory, defeat, joy, despair.
Adjectives: Words which describe nouns. These are simple enough until you get:
- Compound adjectives: multiple words which describe the same characteristic about a noun. The most common compound adjective in sportswriting is age. Compound adjectives take hyphens. So describing someone’s age is three words and two hyphens: The 24-year-old player. Other compound adjectives also take hyphens. For example, when talking about Sam Whitelock, one might say Whitelock is a tall, Manawatu-born, Crusader.
Verbs: words which name actions - run, catch, play.
Adverbs: Words which modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs - run fast, catch well, play badly.
Prepositions: Words which describe a relationship in time or space - He scored under the posts; They were beaten before halftime.
There are three tenses you use in article writing - past, present, and future. Headlines should be written in present tense, articles written in past tense unless you’re actually talking about something which takes place in the future.
First, second, and third person:
- First person writing uses the word ‘I’, ‘we’ or ‘us’ and writes from a personal point of view. Opinion articles often use first person.
- Second-person writing addresses the reader using ‘you’ (this guide is written in second person) - First and Second person are often used in the same piece of writing.
- Third person doesn’t address the reader and refers to the people being written about with he, she, or they. News articles are written in third person.